ブラジル

ブラジル:サンパウロ

大浦 智子(おおうら ともこ)

職業…フリーランス
居住都市…ブラジル国サンパウロ市

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2019.4

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2018年12月、ブラジルで難民となって4年10カ月でシリアにいた母親と妹を呼び寄せることが絵来たアブドゥルバセットさん

2018年12月、ブラジルで難民となって4年10カ月でシリアにいた母親と妹を呼び寄せることが絵来たアブドゥルバセットさん

 2011年に始まったシリア内戦以降、ヨーロッパを中心に国外へ難民となるシリア人のニュースが話題となりました。ブラジルでも14年から15年にかけて急増し、昨年までのブラジルの国別難民認定者数の中では最大多数で、全体の約35%を占め、続くコンゴ民主共和国の約17%の倍の人数に達します。

 ブラジルには19世紀後半から当時オスマン帝国領だった現在のシリアやレバノンから公式に移民して来る人たちがいました。そのため、シリア人やレバノン人といったアラブ人は身近で、存在感があります。

 一方、日本では実感のわきにくいシリアという国や難民の存在。ごくまれに天然素材の良質な石けんとしてシリアで生産、輸入販売されている「アレッポの石けん」で、シリアを身近に感じるという人に出会うこともあります。


日本でシリアから輸入販売されている「アレッポの石けん」

日本でシリアから輸入販売されている「アレッポの石けん」

 そんな中、内戦で最も破壊の激しかった町の一つであるアレッポで、20年生活してきた日本人女性が山崎やよいさんです。

 考古学者である山崎さんは古代遺跡への情熱から中東と関わるようになり、結果的にアレッポで暮らすようになりました。現地でシリア人のご主人と結婚し、穏やかな毎日を送っていました。シリアの内戦はちょうど山崎さんがアレッポ不在中に発生し、時を同じくして最愛のご主人が病気で天に召されました。その後、ヨルダンの大学を卒業した娘さんが日本の大学院に通うようになったことから、山崎さんも日本に生活拠点を移しました。

 山崎さんは13年からNGO「イブラ・ワ・ハイト」を結成し、ししゅう産業を通してシリア国内外で難民となったシリア人女性の将来的な自活支援に取り組んでいます。これまでシリア人女性にししゅう製作資材を提供して買収と販路開拓を推進し、年に数回、日本でも展示即売を行ってきました。


イブラ・ワ・ハイトで取り扱っている難民となったシリア人女性がししゅうをした飾り布

イブラ・ワ・ハイトで取り扱っている難民となったシリア人女性がししゅうをした飾り布

 「一時期のことを思えば、今は日本ではシリア難民のことは過去のことのようなってしまった雰囲気があります」と話す山崎さん。

 他方、ブラジルでもシリアをはじめ難民の生活は決して好転したわけでなく、雇用や教育、日々の住居の問題まで、ごく普通の生活を営むために問題は山積みです。そんな難民の話題をブラジルでは比較的メディアは報道しています。

 ブラジルのサンパウロに暮らすアレッポ出身のアブドゥルバセット・ジャロールさん(28)は、14年にブラジルに渡って難民認定され、シリアに帰国することは考えず、18年12月にはアレッポに残されていた最後の家族である母親と妹を呼び寄せることができました。そんなアブドゥルさん家族を大手メディアも報じています。


サンパウロのアブドゥルさんとWhatsAppで話をする東京の山崎さん母娘

サンパウロのアブドゥルさんとWhatsAppで話をする東京の山崎さん母娘

 アブドゥルさんにとって、肉親や友人を亡くした悲しみを払しょくし難いシリアですが、アレッポへの郷愁は人一倍です。年明けに日本の山崎さん母子とサンパウロの間でメッセンジャーアプリ「WhatsApp」でつなぎ、しばらくの間、お互いの郷里アレッポの世間話にアラビア語で花を咲かせました。

 「いつも買いに行っていたアラブのお総菜屋さんがあるのですが、実はアブドゥルさんの義兄のお店だったそうです。典型的なアレッポの商人といった雰囲気ですね」など、冗談交じりにローカルな話題で盛り上がったことを教えてくれました。

 アブドゥルさんはアレッポなまりの山崎さんの娘さんと会話できたことに、
 「とても幸せな時間でした! 日本人とアレッポなまりのアラビア語で話せるなんて」と喜びのコメント。


2018年12月25日付ンパウロのFolha de Sao Paulo紙で一面に紹介されたアブドゥルバセットさん家族

2018年12月25日付ンパウロのFolha de Sao Paulo紙で一面に紹介されたアブドゥルバセットさん家族

 ブラジルと日本、世界各国でいつ戻れるか予測できないシリアの故郷を思う人々がいます。理不尽な状況にあっても、家族や友人、困った人々への思いやりを忘れないシリアの心は世界各地で失われることなく、そばにいる人まで優しい気持ちにさせてくれます。


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